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  • Writer's pictureKishanu Karmakar

How Google's Search Engine Works: Crawling, Indexing & Ranking


What is Google Search Engine


The Google search engine, which handles over 5.4 billion queries each day, is the most popular search engine on the Internet. Google search uses an algorithm to provide search results based on keywords entered by users, and it also offers advanced search options such as searching for specific types of content such as images, videos, and news articles. Search results are usually displayed as a list of hits. Google uses crawling, indexing, and ranking to identify pages on the internet and add them to its database for display as and when a user query appears.






How Google Search Engine Works


Users receive relevant search results from search engines using a combination of algorithms and indexing.


Crawling: To visit websites and gather data about their pages, search engines utilize programs known as crawlers. The information gathered is subsequently included in the search engine's index, a database of all the pages it has discovered.


Indexing: The search engine's index is then used to create an inverted index, which is a data structure that allows for efficient searching. The inverted index maps each word on a page to the set of pages that contain that word.


Ranking: The search engine evaluates a user's search query against the pages in its index. The pages are ranked by the search engine according to a variety of criteria, such as how closely the page matches the search query, how many other websites connect to it, and how authoritative the website as a whole is.




How Do Search Engine Works
How Do Search Engine Works


What is Search Engine Crawling?


Search engine crawling is the process by which search engines send out automated programs, called crawlers or spiders, to visit websites and collect information about their pages. The information gathered is subsequently included in the search engine's index, a database of all the pages it has discovered.


A crawler explores a website by clicking on the links on each page to find new pages. As it visits each page, the crawler analyzes the content and structure of the page, and it also looks at the links on the page. Crawlers can use this information to discover new pages and understand the website's structure overall.


The process of crawling is continuous, and search engines regularly revisit websites to ensure that their information is up-to-date. Websites that are updated frequently or have many new pages added to them will be crawled more often than websites that are rarely updated.




Search engines use the information collected during crawling to understand the content and structure of a website, and to determine how relevant a website is to a user's search query. A website's ranking in search results is based on this information.



What is Search Engine Indexing?


Search engine indexing is the process of adding website pages to a search engine's database, also known as an index. After a search engine crawls a website and collects information about its pages, the pages are added to the index. The index is a large database that stores all the information that the search engine has learned about a website, including the content of each page, the structure of the website, and the links between pages.



What is Search Engine Ranking?


The process of figuring out the relevancy and placement of web pages in search engine results is known as search engine ranking. When a user does a search, the search engine compares the search query to the sites in its index and ranks the pages according to many criteria, such as relevancy, authority, and popularity.


When a search query matches a web page, it is said to be relevant. Search engines use various techniques to determine the relevance of a web page, such as analyzing the content of the page and the keywords used on the page.



Authority refers to the overall quality and credibility of a website. A website's authority is determined by a variety of factors, including the number and quality of links to it from other websites.


Popularity refers to how often a web page is visited. Search engines use various techniques to determine the popularity of a web page, such as the number of times the page has been shared on social media and the number of times the page has been visited.


Users can then access the most relevant results based on the search engine's ranking of the pages. The order of the results is important, as the top results are more likely to be clicked on and visited by users.


Search engines regularly update the ranking criteria and algorithms they utilize because they want to provide users with the most useful and pertinent search results possible.



What is Crawl Budget? And How Does It Matter for SEO?


Generally, crawl budgets refer to the number of pages that are crawled and indexed by a search engine. It is a measure of the resources that a search engine allocates to crawl a particular website. Crawl budget is important for SEO because it can affect how well a website's pages are indexed and how well they rank in search results.


The size of the website, the number of links referring to the website, and the frequency of website changes are some of the variables that affect a website's crawl budget. Generally speaking, larger and more linked-to websites will have greater crawl budgets than smaller ones. Websites that are updated frequently will also generally have a larger crawl budget than those that are rarely updated.



To optimize the crawl budget, website owners can take a few steps such as:


  • Keep the number of pages on your website to a minimum by removing duplicate or low-quality pages.


  • Ensure that the internal linking structure of your website is obvious and simple for search engines to understand.


  • Check your website for crawl issues using Google Search Console, and then repair any broken links.


  • Use robots.txt file to block search engines from crawling pages that aren't relevant or important.


  • Make sure all of your important pages are indexed by search engines by using sitemaps.


  • By optimizing the crawl budget, website owners can help ensure that their pages are indexed correctly and that they receive the maximum amount of traffic from search engines.



Most Important SEO Ranking Factors


A website's search engine ranking and visibility are improved by search engine optimization (SEO). There are many factors that can affect a website's ranking in search results, but some are considered more important than others. Some of the most important SEO ranking factors include:


1) Content quality: One of the key ranking variables is the quality and usability of the content on a website. Search engines appreciate websites with high-quality, relevant content because they desire to give their visitors the most relevant and helpful information possible.



2) Keywords: People use words and phrases known as keywords to find information online. Utilize relevant keywords in your website's content and meta tags to increase search engine visibility. Search engines use keywords to measure how relevant a website is to a given search query.


3) Backlinks: Backlinks, often referred to as inbound links, are links that go to a certain website from other websites. The more backlinks a website has, the higher it will normally rank in search results as search engines see backlinks as an indicator of a website's popularity and authority.


4) Website structure: The structure of a website, including the organization of its pages and the way they link to each other, can also affect its ranking in search results. An easy-to-navigate and well-organized website are more likely to rank well in search engines.


5) Mobile-friendliness: With the increasing number of people using mobile devices to access the internet, mobile-friendliness has become an important ranking factor. A mobile-friendly website provides a good user experience on smaller screens and is well-ranked by search engines.


6) Load speed: The load speed of a website is another important factor that can affect its ranking in search results. Search engines reward websites that load quickly and seamlessly because they want to provide their users with the greatest experience possible.


7) User experience: Another significant factor that search engines examine when ranking websites is user experience (UX). Search engines favor websites that are easy to use and provide a good user experience, which includes factors such as easy navigation, clear and concise content, and a visually pleasing design.




What is Robots.txt and Why It Matters?


Using robots.txt files, website owners can tell search engines which pages or sections of their sites should not be indexed or crawled. The file is placed in the root directory of a website and is commonly used to prevent search engines from indexing duplicate content, or from indexing pages that are not important for SEO.


A basic text file called robots.txt provides a particular language to communicate with search engine crawlers. For example, the file can be used to disallow the crawling of specific pages or directories or to allow the crawling of only certain pages.


Also, it is important for website owners to be aware that robots.txt files can also be used by malicious actors to find sensitive information or uncover vulnerabilities in a website, so it is important to use them carefully and keep them up-to-date.



How Long Does it Take Google to Index a Page?


A page's indexing by Google can take a variety of timeframes, depending on a number of parameters. Generally, it can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks for Google to index a new page. However, in some cases, it may take longer.



Some of the factors that can affect how long it takes for Google to index a page include:


  • The age of the website: Websites that are new or have recently undergone a redesign may take longer to be indexed by Google.


  • The number of pages on the website: Websites with a large number of pages may take longer to be fully indexed by Google.


  • The frequency of updates to the website: Websites that are updated frequently may be indexed more quickly by Google than those that are rarely updated.


  • The number of backlinks to the website: Websites with many high-quality backlinks may be indexed more quickly by Google than those with fewer backlinks.


  • The competition for the keywords: Pages targeting highly competitive keywords may take longer to be indexed and rank well.


  • The technical SEO of the website: Issues like crawl errors, duplicated content, or poor website structure may slow down the indexing process.



How to Get New Content Indexed Fast By Google?


There are several ways to get new content indexed fast by Google:


  • Submit a sitemap: A sitemap is a file that contains a list of all the pages on a website together with details about each page, including the most recent change date. Submitting a sitemap to Google via Google Search Console can help speed up the indexing process, as it gives Google a roadmap of the website and makes it easier for the search engine to find new content.


  • Build backlinks: Backlinks commonly referred to as inbound links point to a specific website from other websites. Search engines view backlinks as a sign of the popularity and authority of a website, so the more backlinks a website has, the more likely its pages are to be indexed quickly by Google.


  • Use social media: Social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn should be used to share fresh content. In addition to increasing website traffic, this can enhance Google's indexing of the page.


  • Use internal linking: Linking to new content from other pages on the website can also help to speed up the indexing process. Internal links signal to search engines that a new page is important and should be indexed quickly.


  • Use Google Search Console: Use Google Search Console to check the indexing status of new pages and fix any issues that may be preventing them from being indexed.


  • Use Fetch as Google: You may submit a specific URL for crawling using this tool in Google Search Console. This is useful if you want to expedite the indexing of a new page.





Optimize Your Website For Mobile


It is crucial to optimize your website for mobile devices like smartphones and tablets since Google prioritizes mobile-first indexing. Here are a few ways to optimize your website for mobile devices:


  • Use a responsive design: This suggests that your website's design will automatically change to fit the size of the screen it is being viewed on.


  • Keep your pages fast-loading: Optimize images, reduce the number of elements on a page, and use a content delivery network (CDN) to speed up the delivery of your website's resources.


  • Make sure your buttons and links are easy to click: Use large, easy-to-see buttons and links that are easy to click on a small screen.


  • Make sure your website is easy to navigate: Utilize a user-friendly small-screen navigation interface that is straightforward and simple.


  • Use a mobile-friendly Content Management System (CMS): Your ability to design and operate a mobile-friendly website will be made simple with a mobile-friendly CMS.


  • Test your website on multiple mobile devices: Test your website on different mobile devices and make sure it looks and works as expected.


  • Use mobile-specific features: Use features such as geolocation and click-to-call that are specific to mobile devices.


  • Optimize your website for local search: Make sure your website is optimized for local search by prominently displaying your company name, location, and phone number.


  • Use Google Analytics: Use Google Analytics to track your website's mobile performance and make data-driven decisions about how to improve it.



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